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Carolyn Dean

Carolyn Dean portrait
Distinguished Professor
Cultural histories of the native Americas and colonial Latin America. Inka (Inca) visual and performance culture before and after Spanish colonization. Indigenous adaptations of Roman Catholicism. Inka stonework in the pre-Hispanic and colonial Andes, as well as the modern imagination.
Office: 831-459-3119
Research Interests: 

Cultural histories of the native Americas and colonial Latin America. Inka (Inca) visual and performance culture before and after Spanish colonization. Indigenous adaptations of Roman Catholicism. Inka stonework in the pre-Hispanic and colonial Andes, as well as the modern imagination.

Kresge College, Room 224
Office Hours: 

by appointment

Mailing Address: 

Carolyn Dean, Porter Academic Services, 1156 High Street, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064

Selected Publications: 


  •  A Culture of Stone: Inka Perspectives on Rock (Durham: Duke University Press, 2010).
  •  Los Cuerpos de los Incas y el Cuerpo de Cristo: El Corpus Christi en el Cuzco Colonial, trans. Javier Flores Espinoza, introduction by Manuel Burga (Lima: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and Banco Santander Central Hispano, 2003). [Revised edition in Spanish of Inka Bodies and the Body of Christ {Durham: Duke University Press, 1999}].
  •  Inka Bodies and the Body of Christ: Corpus Christi in Colonial Cuzco, Peru (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999).

Recent Articles

  • “A Rock and an Art Place: The Inkas’ Collaconcho in Context.” World Art, Online:
  • “Rocks Like Us.” In Field Notes on the Work of Art, ed. Karen Lang. Bristol, UK: Intellect Books, 2019.
  • “Scorned Subjects in Colonial Objects,” co-authored with Dana Leibsohn. Material Religion: The Journal of Objects, Art and Belief 13.4 (2017): 414-436. 
  • “Cuando el arte era ‘mestizo’: balance y perspectivas.” In Pintura cuzqueña, ed. Luis Eduardo Wuffarden and Ricardo Kusunoki, 61-71. Lima: Museo de Arte de Lima (MALI), 2016. 
  • “Men Who Would Be Rocks: The Inka Wank’a.” In The Archaeology of Wak’as: Explorations of the Sacred in the Pre-Columbian Andes, ed. Tamara L. Bray, 213-38. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 2015.
  • “Rocks and Reverence: Inka and Spanish Perceptions of Stonework in the Early Modern Andes.” In The Matter of Art: Materials, Practices, Cultural Logics, c. 1250–1750, ed. Christy Anderson, Anne Dunlop, and Pamela Smith, 180-201. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015
  • “Reviewing Representation: The Subject-Object in Pre-Hispanic and Colonial Inka Visual Culture.” Colonial Latin American Review 23.3(2014): 298-319
  • “Juegos bélicos: teatro militar indígena en el Perú Colonial.” In Miradas comparadas en los Virreinatos de América, coord. Ilona Katzew, trans. Hilda Dominguez Márquez, Mónica Dominguez Torres, and Ilona Katzew, 132-49. México, D.F.: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia de México, 2012. (Translation of “War Games: Indigenous Militaristic Theater in Colonial Peru,” in Contested Visions of the Spanish Colonial World, ed. Ilona Katzew, 2011). 
  • "Notes from the Field: Anthropomorphism," Art Bulletin 94, no. 1 (2012): 15-16.
  • "Inka Water Management and the Symbolic Dimensions of Display Fountains," RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics 59/60 (2011): 22-38.
  • "War Games: Indigenous Militaristic Theater in Colonial Peru," Contested Vision of the Spanish Colonial World," ed. Ilona Katzew (Los Angeles: LACMA, 2011), 132-49.
  • "Inka Ruins and the Discourse of Mystery," Third Text 25.6 (2011): 737-49.
  • "Rock Sites/Rock's Sight: Reflections on Site Documentation," Public Art Dialogue 1.2 (2011): 151-61.
  • “The Painted Face of the City: Images of Corpus Christi in Colonial Cuzco,” Imagery, Spirituality and Ideology in Baroque Spain and Latin America, ed. Jeremy Roe and Marta Bustillo (Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2010), 71–82.
  • “The After-life of Inka Rulers: Andean Death before and after Spanish Colonization,” Death and Afterlife in the Early Modern Hispanic World, ed. John Beusterien and Constance Cortez, Hispanic Issues On Line vol. 7 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2010), 27–54,
  •  “Beyond Prescription: Notarial Doodles and Other Marks,” Word & Image 25.3 (July-Sept. 2009): 293-316.
  •  “The Inka Married the Earth: Integrated Outcrops and the Making of Place,” Art Bulletin 89.3 (2007): 502-518.
  •  “Savage Breast/Salvaged Breast: Allegory, Colonization, and Wet-Nursing in Peru, 1532-1825,” in Early Modern Visual Allegory: Embodying Meaning, ed. Cristelle Baskins and Lisa Rosenthal (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. 2007), 265-79. Reprinted in Woman and Art in Early Modern Latin America, ed. Kellen Kee McIntyre and Richard E. Phillips (Leiden: Brill, 2007), 247-64.
  • “Rethinking Apacheta,” Ñawpa Pacha 28 (2006): 93-108.
  • “The Trouble with (the Term) Art,” Art Journal 65.2 (Summer 2006): 24-32.
  • “Metonymy in Inca Art,” in Presence and Images: Essays on the ‘presence’ of the prototype within the image. Ed. Rupert Shepherd and Robert Maniura (Aldersot, UK: Ashgate, 2006), 105-120.
  • “Inka Nobles, Portraiture and Paradox in Colonial Peru,” in Exploring New World Imagery. Ed. Donna Pierce (Denver: Denver Art Museum, 2005), 79-103.
  •  “Hybridity and Its Discontents: Considering Visual Culture in Colonial Spanish America,” co-authored with Dana Leibsohn, Colonial Latin American Review 12.1 (2003): 5-35.
  • “Sketches of Childhood: Children in Colonial Andean Art and Society,” in Minor Omissions: Children in Latin American History and Society. Ed. Tobias Hecht (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002), 21-51.
  •  “Familiarizando el catolicismo en el Cuzco colonial,” in Incas e indios cristianos: elites indígenas e identidades cristianas en los Andes coloniales. Ed. Jean-Jacques Decoster (Cuzco: CBC/IFEA/KURAKA, 2002), 169-194.
  • “Boys and Girls and ‘Boys’: Popular Depictions of African-American children and Childlike Adults in the United States, 1850-1930,” Journal of American & Comparative Cultures 23.3 (2002): 17-35.
  •  “Andean Androgyny and the Making of Men,” in Gender in Pre-Hispanic America. Ed. Cecelia F. Klein (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2001), 143-182.
  • “The Ambivalent Triumph: Corpus Christi in Colonial Cusco, Peru,” in Acting On The Past: Historical Performance Across the Disciplines. Ed. Mark Franko and Annette Richards (Hanover and London: Wesleyan University Press, 2000), 159-176.
  • “Creating a Ruin in Colonial Cusco: Sacsahuamán and What Was Made of It.” Andean Past 5(1998): 161-83.
  • “Copied Carts: Spanish Prints in Andean Contexts.” Art Bulletin 78.1 (1996): 98–110.
  • “The Renewal of Old World Images and the Creation of Colonial Peruvian Visual Culture.” In Converging Cultures: Art and Identity in Spanish America, ed. Diana Fane, 171-82. New York: The Brooklyn Museum, 1996.
  • “Who’s Naughty and Nice: Depictions of Childish Behavior in the Paintings of Cuzco’s Corpus Christi Procession.” In Native Artists and Patrons, Phoebus: A Journal of Art History(Arizona State University) 7(1995): 107-126. 
  • “Ethnic Conflict and Corpus Christi in Colonial Cuzco.” Colonial Latin American Review 2.1-2 (1993): 93-120. 
Education and Training: 
B.A. in art & art history, University of Puget Sound
M.A. and Ph.D. in art history, UCLA